Η πολιτική οικονομία του Ίντερνετ

μετάφραση του δημοσιευμένου το 1999 άρθρου (επιτρέπεται η ανα-δημ. και χρήση για μη εμπορικούς σκοπούς)

? a??pt??? t?? ??te??et st? ??s? ??e? s???de?te? ap? t?? ???d? ?a? ?p?pta ?pe?a?s??d???? ?de?????a? (t?? ??te??et?f???a?), ? ?p??a ??pe? se a?t? t? ?e?ape?a e??? a????? de???? p?? ast????? t? s??????? ???????a. ??t? ? ??e????? p??s????s? t?? a??a??? p?? ep?f??e? t? ??te??et e?te??eta? se ??e? t?? sfa??e? t?? a????p???? d??s??, ap? t??? a?ad?a????? ??????? ???? t?? ???????a ?a? t?? p???t???. ??e? ap?fas?st??? ?a????se? t?? a?t????? ?a? t?? s???t?se?? a? ??a t? ??te??et, pe???????p????ta? ?p??ad?p?te p??s????s? de? p??s?p????fe? t?? te????????? ?tete????s? ?a? t? ?e???s? t?? ?????t?? a? ?? a?ap?t?epta ?atate????t?? p??? t?? e?e??e?? a????. ?a??t? ???s???? ????? ep?s???e? t? etaf?s???, e???t??????? ?a? e????t??????? f?s? t?? s??af?? s???t?se?? ( Barbrook ?a? Cameron 1996, Hacker 1996, Sardar 1996), ? ???e??? s?st?at???? ???t???? ?a? ? ???st??? f?s? t?? e?eta??e??? d??at?? ????? ?d???se? se ?a p??t?fa?? ????s? ??a t?? ape?e?????s? t?? ep????????a? ap? ???e ????st??? p?a?s?? p?? de? s???de? p??? t?? e?e??e?? a???? ?a? t?? ????t? e?sa???? t?? ??e?t??????? ep????? on - line . ?? ??te??et ??e? a?a???e?te? se s???? t?? ?ap?ta??s?? t?? pa???s?a? e?e??e??? a?????. ??af????ta? p??? t? ?s???? pa??de??a, t? ?ef??a?? a?t? ???e? ?a de??e? ?t? ? on - line ep????????a ?a?????eta? ap? t? d?ap???? ??????????, ?????????? ?a? p???t???? pa?a???t??, ?? ?p???? se e???? a?? ap?fas????? ??a t? ????? t?? ??te??et. S??ep??, ? ??sp?s? e??? p?a?s??? ????se?? ??a t?? s?et???? e t? ??te??et ????a??e? ??e? ???st? s?as?a, a? ?????e a?t? ?a ap?e? ?f???? ??a t? ????? ?a?? .

? ??te??et?f???a ??e? e?a??e??e? t?? a?ap?t?ept? ?f??? ?a? ???te?a ??a? ep????, ?a? ep???? p?? ta ?a?a?t???st??? t?? d?af????? d?aat???, p?? ?? a?et?? ?a? ?? ??a??s?? t?? e??a? ad??at?? ?a ?ata??????? e t?? a?a??t???? e??d??? t?? pa?e????t??. ??a?????e? sta?e?? t?? ?d?a ?a? ape??f?ast?? ????? e t? pa?e????. ? ????t???a d??a? a?t?? t?? ?a???t??a? ?a???t??a? e??a? a??a?f??? te?????????? p???e?ta? ??a ?a a??a?? ??s?a?, ??a ?a p???t??? eta??? ( Kahin ?a? Nesson 1997: vii ) ? ?p??a s??a??????a e??a?????e? ??a? ??? t??p? pa?a?????, d?a???? ?a? ?ata????s?? t?? p????f???a?. ?? as??? ?t?? e??a? ? et?as? ap? t?? a?a?????? st?? ??f?a?? p????f???a? ? ??a??t?ta ?a ap????e???e t?? p????f???a se s??d?as??? t?? e??? ?a? t?? ?de??? e??a? t? ??e?d? ??a t? ??a ep??? ( Gore 1994, Negroponte 1995: 11-20). ?? ?????te?e? a?et?? t?? ??a? te???????a? e??a? ? ?a???t??a ?a? ? d??a?s??. ??a e??a? ?a??????a, ??a te???? ?p? d?a??? ta?e?a ????s?.??t?p??e??a??a???????s?e?a

?a ??e? pa???se? a????, ??at? t? ??f?a?? ep???t??e? ??e? t?? ??e?? t?? ???????a? e d??a?s?. ? d??a?s?? ?atast??fe? t?? e???s?a ?a??st??ta? t?? p??s?????. ?at? s???pe?a, ??a ?a eta??f????ta? ad????pa, t?p?te de? ?a ???e? t? f?es??da t??, ?a?? d?? de? ?a ep???ate?. ?a?? ???s? de? ?a e??a? d?a???????, ?a?? p???t??? ???st???, ?a???a e??t?a ????? ep?????, ? a?t????? p?? ????e ??a t? ???s? p??pe? ?a a????e?. ?? ?p?st????t?? t?? ??te??et?f???a? d?ate????ta? ?t? ? ??f??p???s? t?? te???????a? ep?f??e? a??a??? st? s????? t?? ???????a?, a??a??? p?? e??a? ad??at? ?a ?????? ?ata???t??, ?a p??se???st??? ?a? ?a a?t?et?p?s????, a? de? e??a??d???e? ?a ??a f???s?f?a.

? s??e??? a?af??? st?? ????? ?a? t? d?a??? a?a???s? t?? ???s?? ?????e? st??? ep????t?? t?? te???p?a? t?? et???ta t?? «?p?s??d??????» e?? ?a?a?t????e? t?? a?t????? t??? ??a t?? te????????? a??a?? ?? «pe?????»? a?t?? e??a? ?? «??f?a??? ?ste???» ( Negroponte 1995:7). ??s? a?t?? t?? d?ad??as?a?, ?? e?a??a?t???? ?pt???? f?????ta? ?a? ?? ??te??et?f?????? s????afe?? a?t?a?a???e???ta? se ??e???-??aat?st??. ? ??te??et?f???a ?p?st????e? ?t? ? ??te??et??? ep????????a ?a p??a???e? t?? e?e??e??a. ? e?e??e??a e??a? t? d?????a p?? a?t?p??s?pe?e? ? d???t???? ??????ta?? ? a??a p?? ?a??e? p??te?a??t?ta ??a?t? ?p??asd?p?te ?????. ??t??t???, ? ???? se a?t? ta s?f?a??e?a d????e? t?? a???t??? e?e??e??a? , ?a?' ?s?? p???e?ta? ??a e?e??e??a ap? e??te?????? pe?????s??? (e? a?t???se? p??? ?a ?et??? ??f?as? t?? e?e??e??a?).

 

? ??te??et?f???a e??a? p??s?????? st?? ?d?a ?t? t? ??te??et e??a? e?e??e??, ?a ????a??? ??t?t?ta ?pe???? t?? ?f?st?e??? s??se??, ?pe???? t?? ???????a?. ????t???t?ta st?? ep??? t?? ??te??et s?a??e? e?e??e??a ap? t?? p?a?at???t?ta, ?a? e?e??e??a ap? t?? p?a?at???t?ta s?a??e? e?e??e??a ap? ?p??ad?p?te ?????????, ????????? ? p???t??? ????- ? a???-d?ad??as?a, t?? ????t???a? ? e?a????????. ?? ??te??et a?t??a??st? t? d?????, ??e?st? s?st?a t?? fa???? a?t?p??s?pe?t???? d????at?a? e ??a e??e??? e?e??e?? pa??de??a ?es?? d????at?a?. ?? ?a e?sa? ??a? ?et?p???t?? ?a? ?a s?et??e?? se a?t?? t?? ape?t?p?s??? a???? ap?te?e? f?s??? d??a??a st?? ??f?a?? ??s? ??a? ??s? e?e??e?? ap? ???e edaf???t?ta ?a? ???e ????????? f?a??. ??e??e??a d??s?? st? ??te??et s?a??e? e?e??e??a ?????. ? e?e??e??a t?? ??f?as?? t? s????, ??s?ast???, t?? ??e???-e?e??e??a?- e??a? a?t? ??a t? ?p??? a???????ta? ?? ?et?p???te?.

?p?p???? ?p?st????eta? ?t? t? ??te??et e??a? pa???s?? ( Gore 1994 a :7), ??at? ?ata??e? t?? ap?stas? ?a? ?? e? t??t?? a??e? t??? pe?????s??? t?? ?e???af?a? ( Negroponte 1995:165, Johnson ?a? Post 1997:6),etas??at????ta? t?

?e?p???t??? t?? p????f???a?, d??ad? t?? ???s? p??sas? t?? ?at????? t?? p?a??t? st?? p????f???a ???? ?e???af???? ??s?? ( Negroponte 1996 a ). ? ?e???af?a e??a? pa??????? pe??tt?, ?p?? pe??tt? e??a? ?a? ? ?e?-e???s?a. ?? ??te??et, ???p??, ?a e?d??a?se? ta ?t?a p?? e??????? st?? ?????????? pa??f??, ?a? t??? ?es??? ?a? t?? ???e? t?? ?????????-?????????? pe??f??e?a? ( Poster 1995, Turckle 1995, Johnson ?a? Post 1997). Ta a?at???e? t? s?e???? e???s?ast??? d?? eta??f????ta? t??? p???te? t?? p?a??t? ap? ????d????? ?eat?? t?? p???????a? se e?e????? pa?a?????? on - line p????f???a? ( Goodwin 1996). ??a t?t??a e?d????s? ?a??stata? pe?a?t??? ef??t? ap? t? ?t?, ap? te?????? ?p????, t? ??te??et e??a? ap??e?t?????: de? ??e? ???t?? ?a? ??a de? p??e? ?a e?e???e? te????? ( Negroponte 1995, Barrett 1996, Caruso 1996, Gates 1996, Volkmer 1996, Froomkin 1997, Johnson ?a? Post 1997, Schwartz 1997). ?? p?s? pe??pt?se?, ? ????? ?a? ??? t?? d?e???e??? p????f???a? ?a??st? ad??at? t?? ?s??s? ?p????d?p?te e?????? ep' a?t?? ( Johnson ?a? Post 1997). ?? s?ept??? e??a? ?t? ? te????? ad??a?a ????s?? ?a? e?????? pa?a??e? t?? e???s?a t?? e?????? ???t??? ( Caruso 1996: 57). ??t? ?a? t? e?d?af???? t?? ??te??et?f???a? ??a t?? at???? e?e??e??a s??ep????ta? ?t? ? ??te??et?f???a e??a? e??e??? a?t?-etat?st??? ( Chapman 1995, Poster 1995, Barlow 1996, Gidary 99, Heilemann 1996, Kline ?a? Burstein 1996, Negroponte 1996, Steele 1996, Economist 1996, 1997 a , Volkmer 1996, Abrams 1997, Froomkin 1997, Johnson ?a? Post 1997, Browning 1998). ?? ???t?? pa???s???eta? ?? ??a? ate??sf???? a?a?????s??, ??a? ??afe????at???? e????? t?? e?e??e??a?, ? de ?pa??? t?? ?? pe??tt? ??a t?? e????? ?e?t?????a t?? ??te??et. ?? ???t?? ???e? t? ????t?t? t?? st?? on - line ??s? ( Johnson ?a? Post 1997:10)? ?fe??e? -?a? ?a t? ???e?- ?a ?de?se? p??? t? a?as?, ?a??? ? ??e???????? ?a d?e????eta? ?????a pe??ss?te?? ( Negroponte 1995:230, Barlow 1996 a ).

??t? t?? ep?st?s??? st? ??te??et s?e?????ta? ?? ??as?te? t?? ??te??et?f???a?, ?????p?? p??e???e??? ap? d??f????? ?????? ?? ?p???? p????????? st?? est?as? t???. St?? a?ad?a??? ?a? t? d??s????af??? ???? p????e ?a d?a??????e, ?at' a????, ?a f??e?e??e??-?a???st??? p??s????s? ? ?p??a d??e? ?d?a?te?? ???? st?? at???? e?e??e??a ?a? st? ??te??et ?? ep??e?at??? a???? ?de?? ( Negroponte 1995, Froomkin 1997, Dyson 1998)? ?? p?? p??sfat?? ?p?st????t?? ?a? t?t??a? p??s????s?? e??a? ?? ??as?te? t?? a???a??? ?tete????s?? ( Barlow 1996, Tapscott 1996, Economist 1997, Huber 1997, Kahin 1997, Rosseto 1997: 244, Schwartz 1997, Solomon 1998). ?at? de?te???, e?t?p????e ?a pe??s?tte?? eta?e?te???? p??s????s?, ? ?p??a e?et??e? p?? ? ??te??et??? ep????????a ape?e??e???e? t? ?p??e?e?? ap? t?? ??t??????? ?at??a t?? ?e?te????t?ta? ( Poster 1995, Turckle 1995, Reid 1996, Renan 1996). St?? p???t??? ????, ? ??????s? Clinton st?? ??? ?a? ? p??s????s? Bangeman st?? ????pa??? ???s? ?p???a? ?? ?????te??? ?p??a??? t?? f??e?e??e??p???s?? t?? ep????????a? e? ???at? t?? s?????s?? ( Clinton 1992, 1998, ??????s? Clinton 1993, 1995, 1997, Gore 1993, 1994, 1994 a , CEC 1994:8,15,1997, KPMG 1996, Bangeman 1997, 1997 a , Papas 1997:5). ???? ?a? st?? ep??e???at??? ??s?, ? e?et???e?s? t?? ??f?a??? st???? ?p???e a?ap?fe??t? ( Gates 1996, Hammond 1996, Henning 1997).

? ??te??et?f???a e?d????eta? ?at? d?? t??p???. ?a??t? a?t?? de? d?a???????ta? ap???ta, ? p??t??, ta as??? d??ata t?? ?p???? a?a??sae p??????????, a??e?ta? ?a de??e? ?t? ?p???e? ?d???t?s?a st?? on - line ??s? ( Barlow 1996:172, Negroponte 1995: 59) ? ?t? ? ?pa??? ?d???t?s?a? ??e? ??p??a ep?pt?s? ??a t?? on - line ??s? ( Turckle 1995). ?? ??te??et ????d?e?ta? ?? ??a e??e??? a?a????? s?st?a, a?t?pa?at???e?? st? t????? ?d???t?s?a?? s?st?a. ? de?te?? ??fa?s? t?? ??te??et?f???a?, ep? t?? pa???t?? ??e?????, s?e???eta? a?t? ta ?a?a?t???st???, a??? d?a????eta? ep?p???? ap? ?a? ap????s? t?? ?f?st?e??? ?d???t?s?a??? s?st?at??, ap? ??a? a???a?? ?tete????s? ? ?p????, e t?? e?a??e??a t?? s?????s??, pe?????eta? ????? f?s???? ???? ?? ? ??? ?d?? ??a t? ????? t?? d??s?a? p???t????. ?? ???????, t? ??te??et ?a? ? a???? pa???s?????ta? ?? ?at' ??s?a? pa?efe?e?? ??t?t?te?, ad?a????ste? ?a? a?t????????e?e?.

? de?te?? ??fa?s?t?? ??te??et?f???a? a?apt?????e ?? ap??t?s? st?? a???e?? ep??e?at?p???s? t?? ??te??et. ?? ??te??et ?e??e?ta? p???? ?? ep??e?a: «??e? p?aste? sta d??t?a t?? e????? eta??e??? ( it has gone corporate )», ??e? ?ataste? p???? s???? ( Andrews 1994, Lohr 1994, Economist 1996, Miller 1996: 23-4, Henning 1997: 17-18, Hudson 1997: 11-37, Noam 1997, Schwartz 1997: 15, Sassen 1998). ?p??st? se a?t?? t?? ep??e?at?p???s?, ?p???sd?p?te ?s????s?? ?t? t? Net a??eta? ?pe???? t?? ?????? s??se?? ???e? p???? t? ??e?s? t??. ??? a?t??at?stas? t?? ???e ?a ap????s? ?a t????? d?aea??s?, ?a?a?t???st??? t?? ?e????te??? ???at?? t?? s???t?s?? ??a t? ??te??et ?a? t?? ?d???t?s?a, d??ad?, ?t? t? ??te??et d??e? af??? ??a t?? a??d?s? e??? ap???ta ???? ?????????? pe???????t??, ?a? ??a? ???????a?. ????e?ta? ??a ?a «??f?a?? ???????a», as?s??? st?? af????a ????? pa?? st?? ???e???? ??a ?a? a???? ?p?? ? p??sf??? e??a? ?s? e t? ??t?s? ?a? ?? t??? ?a???????ta? st? ?at?te?? ??t?st? ep?ped?? ?p?? ta ?????p???a ap?fe????ta? ???? t?? ?a???? ??st??? e?s?d?? st?? a????? ?p?? ?? d?s?e?t?????e? t?? a????? e??a? p???? pa?e???? ?a? ? p??????a e?asfa??s???. ??t? ? a???? ap?te?e? ??a? pa??de?s? ??a t??? pa?a?????? ?a? t??? ?ata?a??t??. ??d?p??? ?????s? t?? e??a? ? d??a???? a?ta????s?? ( Gilder 1996:5).

St?? ??s? t?? bits de? ?p???e? s?s?e?as?a ??te d?a??? (?????ta? a?t?ata). ?a ???a?? ??st? ????? ?ata????e? ?a? t??t? ??e? ?? s???pe?a ?? ???????e? ???a?a? ?a ?? ap?f????? p???? a?ta????st??? p?e????t?a. ??? ? d?af????? t??????s? e??a? d?s???? se ?a at???? ???????a, e??a? ??t?a e??? ep?p???? ???? st?? ???????a t?? bits . ??t??a ?a?a?t???st??? ?d????? se ?a? a???s? t?? ap?te?esat???t?ta? t?? d??t???. ????e?ta? ??a ?a? a???? ?????e?? ap? t? ??t?s?. G?at?, a? a?a??a?a s?????? ??a t?? ap?d?t???t?ta t?? a????? e??a? ? ???a?? d???es? p?????? ?a ?s??ta? e t? ???a?? ??st?? ( Varian 1996, Negroponte 1997), ? t?? st? Net ?s??ta? e t?? ???a?? d???es? p??????. ?e ???a ????a, ?? t??? ?a???????ta? ap? t? ??t?s? ?a?, a?t? t?? e???p??? p??sf????, ? ???????a t?? Web «pa???s???e? e???p? ??t?s?» ( Schwartz 1997 a :2). ? ??t?s? p??e? ep?t????? ?a p??e? t?? e?d???s? t??, p??e? ?a ap??t?se? t? d??a? p?? a???a?e? t?? ????e, ??at? a?t? e??a? ? a???? t?? p?????? ( Negroponte 1997 a :112). ?e ???a ????a, ?? pa?ad?s?a??? a???ast???? s?????e? p?? e??a? d??at?? ?a ?d???s??? st?? e?et???e?s? as????ta? st?? ???e???. ?? t? ??te??et e??a? ? t??e?a a????, t?te ? ?ap?ta??s?? e??a? t? t??e?? s?st?a, ??at? ?a?? a??s?t?ta de? p???e?ta? ?a pa?a??e?. ?at? ta ?e??e?a t?? Bill Gates (1996:207):

 

? ?ap?ta??s??, saf?? t? sp??da??te?? ap' ?sa ????????? s?st?ata ????? ?atas?e?aste?, ??e? ?at? t?? pe?as??? de?aet?a ap?de??e? saf?? ta p?e??e?t?at? t?? ??a?t? t?? e?a??a?t???? s?st??t??. ?a??? t? ??te??et e?e??sseta? st? e????? f?sat??, pa???s?? d?ad?ast??? d??t?? t??, ta p?e??e?t?ata a?t? ?a e??st?p???????. ?? pa???e?? p?????t?? ?a? ?p??es??? ?a ??p??? t? ?????? ?? a???ast?? p??? ap?te?esat???te?a ap' ?,t? p??? ?a? ?? ?ata?a??t?? ?a a???????? p??? ap?te?esat???te?a. ????? ?t? ? Adam Smith ?a ?ta? e?t????.

 

?? ? a???? de? p??e? ?a e?e???e?, ?a?? eta??e?a de? p??e? ?a a????e? d?a???? ta ???d? t?? ?a? ?? p??sp??e?e? ap????s?? t?? ??e???????? e??a? ?atad??as??e? ?a ap?t????? ( Bloomberg News 1997, Kantor 1998).

??s? t?? ?d?a? t?? ??a? ???????a?, ? a???? ?a? t? ??te??et ?atas?e?????ta? ?? ??s?ast??? pa?efe?e?? ??t?t?te?? t? ??te??et efa???e? ?a as??? ????t?ta p??? t?? a????. ????sta, ???eta? etaf??? t??. ?p?? t? ??te? ? Kahin (1887:184):

 

?a? p???, ???, a?t? ?a?ea?t?? ? a???? ??d?p?te ??e? ?????e? e t?s? ta??t?ta. ??sa se ?a d??????e?? epe?d?t??? ?????t?ta, t? ??te??et ?e??e?ta? ??? ???? ?? ? ?????? ?p????????a?? ?p?d?? t?? pa?e????t?? ?a? t?? ?????t??(;), a??? ?a? ?? ??a? a?a??? ??????ta? ?e?te??s?? ?a? ep??e???at???? p??t?????a?. ???a? ta?t?????a ?p?stat?, ?????? ?a? ?es???, ??a ???a???? p???a as????pt?? p???t?? ?a? ??t???t?ta?. ?fa???e? ?a pa???e?? ????t?ta e t?? ?d?a t?? a???? st?? ?p??a, e t?? ??e?s? t?? ??e?t??????? ep?????, ?p?s?eta? ?a d?se? ??a p???, sta p?a?s?a e??? a??a??? e?a??a??s??.

 

?ed????? t?? a?et?? t?? ??a? ???????a?, ??a p??? ???? ?a ste??s??e t?? ??s? ap? t?? e??a???a p?? t?? pa???eta?, ?a e??a??d??se? t? ??te??et ??a pe??????? a?ta????s?? ?a? ?a d??se? ?? f???a? e?d????at?s?? ?a? se ?????? t?e?? t?? ?????????? d?ast????t?ta?, p??a? t?? ep????????a?; ????????ta? a?t? t? ep??e???a, ? ??te??et?f???a ??te? t? ??e?t?????? ep???? st? ???t?? t?? at???ta?. ?? t? ??te??et e??a? ?a ???????a af????a?, t?te ? a???? ?a? ? p???s? a?a??? ????? ap? t?? ep????????a de ?a ?p?epe ?a ??te? se ???d??? t?? ??e?t?????? ep????????a ( Hagel ?a? Armstrong 1997: 16). ?? ??te??et a??d?? ????eta? ??? ap???e?st??? ?? ??a ?s? ep????????a? a??? ?a? ?? ?a p?atf??a pa??d?s??, ?? ?a ?p?d??/te???????a st?? ?p??a p????? ?a «t??????» p????? efa?????, ?at? t?? ep????e? t?? ???st?? ( Lehr 1998, Solomon 1998).

?ed????? t?? p???pt???? ?a ???s??p????e? t? Net t?s? ??a t? ??e?t?????? ep???? ?s? ?a? ??a t?? ??e?t?????? ep????????a, a??? ?a? ??a ?p??ad?p?te ???? efa????, p?? ep????e? ?a?e?? ??a p?a?s?? ????s??; ?a?, e? ??e? ?a? t?s? t??e?a? ??f?a??? ???????a?, ??at? ?a ?p?epe ?a?e?? ?a ep???e? ?p??ad?p?te ????s?; ?? epa??e??e? t?? ??a? ???????a? ????? e?d??a?se? t? a?t?-etat?st??? ?p?a??? t?? ??te??et?f???a?. ? e?st?ate?a e?a?t??? ???e ??at???? pa??as?? p?? e?ap???se ? CDA s???de?eta? ap? ?a ??e????? pep????s? ?t? t? ??te??et de? pe??????eta?, de? e??a? d??at?? ??te ?a ?p?epe ?a pe??????eta? ap? ????se??. ?? p???? ep??e???a p?? d?e??????e? t? a?t?a t?? ??te??et?f???a? ??a e????st? d??at? ????s? ?a? ??a t?? pa???s? e??? ?a?est?t?? e?e??e??? a????? e??a? ? s?????s?. ??t? p?? t????eta? e??a? ?t? ?? t??ep????????e?, ?a f??e?e??e??p?????? ????a??a, ?a? ? e?p?p?, ?at? t? ????? ? ?tt?? ?p??e?e?? se ??at???? ????se??, s????????? se ?a te???????a. ???a? pa?????? ?a ????e d?? d?af??et??? ????st??? pa?ade??ata ??a t?? ?d?a te???????a. ??a f??e?e??e??p?????? pa??de??a e??a? se ??s? ?a a?tepe????e? ?a??te?a st?? d?a??? te????????? a??a?? a??? ?a? st?? p????e?t??????? f?s? t?? Net . ?? ???????, a? d?af??et???? efa????? p???e?ta? ?a s???s??? on - line , t?te ???? ??a f??e?e??e??p?????? ????st??? ?a?est?? p??e? ?a t?? ?e???ste? ?at?????a.

St? d??s?a p???t???, ? s?????s? e??a? ? p????a? t?? de?te??? ??fa?s?? t?? ??te??et?f???a?.

?? d?? e?f??se?? t?? ??te??et?f???a? efa?????? p????? ????t?te?: ??a t?? p??t?, de? ?f?stata? d?a????s?? eta?? pa?a????? ?a? ?ata????s?? on - line . G?a t? de?te??, ??a? t?t???? d?a????s?? eta?? pa?a????? ?a? ?ata????s?? on - line e??a? ef??t??, a??? ste?e?ta? s?as?a?, ef' ?s?? ? eta?? t??? e???s?ast??? s??s? ??e? a?at?ape? ap? t?? t??e?a a????.

 

? a?t?d?as?

?a?at??e?ta? ?a t?s? ?a a?t??aa??aste t?? ??te??et?f???a ?? ?a ?de?????a ? ?p??a d????eta? s?e?a ?a pe???d? a?t?d?as?? , ?? t?? ??f?as? t?? ef?e?a? t?? ??te??et, ?? ?a ?pe???? ?e?ape???? ap? t?? ???a?s? t?? ?s?? ( Betig 1997, Hudson 1997, Noam 1997, Sassen 1998). ??a t?t??a p??s????s? e??a? pa?ap?a??t???. ?at' a????, de? epa???e?eta? ???????????, ef' ?s?? ? ??te??et?f????? f???????a d?a???? a????eta?. ?at? de?te???, e??a? ?a? ? ?d?a ??te??et?f?????, ?a?' ?s?? ap??e? t?? ?d?a t?? s??e???? eta????. ?at? t??t?? de, ?p?t?? t? sp??da??t?ta p?? ??e? ? de?te?? ??fa?s? t?? ??te??et?f???a? ??a t?? ep??e???at??? ??s?? t? ??te??et ??e? ?ataste? pa????? ????????? ?daf?? ??a ???e t????? ep??e???at?a. ??ta?t??, de? ?a??e? ?p??? t? ?t? t?? ?d?a ??a p?? ?? s????afe?? ????? ??a a?t?d?as? , ?a??ss??ta? d??s?e? p???t???? ?? ?p??e? ap????? ?a? p??????? ta a??t??? a?t?ata. ? ??te??et?f???a d?af??e? ap? t?? ?pe?a?s??d??e? ?de?????e? p?? s???de?a?, ????? ?????, t?? ???d? t?? ?a??d?a??? t??e??as??, ?at? t? ?t? ep?f??e? d?aat???? a??a??? st?? p???t???, ?s?? af??? t? ????s? t?? ep????????a??? te?????????: ? ???? pe?? ???ep?????????? [ Telecommunications Act ] t?? 1996 ?a? ? ???s??? ????? ??a t? S?????s? [ Green Paper on Convergence ] ?p???a? p??t?fa?e?? st?? ?st???a t?? a????? ep????????a? ????se?? p??? t?? ape?e?????s? ap? ?p???d?p?te ????st??? p?a?s??. ?? se????? t?? a?t?d?as?? pa?a??pe? t?? ?a???a s???? t?? d??s?a? p???t???? st?? p?????s? t?? ??te??et?f?????? at???ta?. ?? p?a?s?? t?? ?e?f??e?e??e??? p???t???? p?? t????e ap? t?? ??te??et?f???a st? ???a t?? te?????????? ?tete????s?? ??e? ???se? ??e???se?? se ???????? t?? ??s? ?a ????et?s??? ??a e?p??e??e?? ap? t?? ??? f??e?e??e?? p?a?s?? ??a t? ????s? t?? ??e?t??????? ep????????a?. ?p??ad?p?te sp??ad??? a?t?d?as? e?a?t??? ?a? t?t??a? at???ta? ??e? ?atad??aste? ?? de??a ?p?s??d?????t?ta? ? p??state?t?s??. ??a? te?e??? d?af??et????, ?e?f??e?e??e??? t??p?? a?t?????? t?? ep????????a? ??e? ?pa???e??e? e? ???at? t?? te???????a?. ? s?????? d??a? t?? ??te??et st?? e??p???t?s? t?? a??pt???? t?? ?ap?ta??st???? ???t??? ?a? t?? a?a??s? t? ??e???p????? p???t???? t?? e?e??e??? a????? d?a???? a????e?. ?e t?? ??e?s? t?? ??e?t??????? ep?????, ?? ep?pt?se?? a?t?? t?? d??a?? e?te????ta? ?a? se ???e?, p??a? t?? ep????????a?, pe??????. ?e? ?p???e? a?t?d?as? (fa???e?? ) e???t?a st? s?????? d??a? t?? ??te??et. ?????, ? ?d?a ?a? a?t?d?as?? (e??? ) pa?a??????e? p?s? ?a???e? ep?pt?se?? e??e ? e?sa???? t?? ??e?t??????? ep????? ??a t? ?e????te?? f?s? t?? ??te??et. ?? ??e?t?????? ep???? a????e? t? ?e?t?????a p?? ep?te?e? t? ??te??et, etat??p??t?? t? ap? ?s? ep????????a? se p?atf??a pa??d?s??. ??a pe??ss?te?? ???e?? a?t?st???? t?? ?a ?ta? ?a e?s??ae 500 ??a ?a????a t??ea????? ?a? ?a ?p?st????ae ?t? a?t? de? ?a ep???a?e t? ?e?t?????a t?? t??e??as??.

? e?sa???? t?? ??e?t??????? ep????? on - line p??pe? ?a a?t?et?p?s?e? ???t???. ??t? t?t??? de? ??e? ???e? a??? epa????, ??at? ? pe?? a?t?d?ast??? () f???????a ?a? ?? ???? t??de ap?pe??e? ???t???? a????s?? efa?????? ?a ep?p???? ad??a?a. ??????? ???e ??stas? st? ??t?a t?? p??sas?? ?a?, ?? e? t??t??, ?a a????s? pe?? «p???s??? ?a? pt???? t?? p????f???a?» pa???s???eta? ?? t? ??? a?t?pa?? d??? t?? ??te??et?f???a? ( Bettig 1997, Sussman 1997:171). ??????t? ? p??sas? e??a? ??a s?a?t??? ??a, ? est?as? t?? ???t???? se a?t?? af??e? t?? e?t?p?s? ?t? e?e??? p?? st?a??a???e? t?? ??f?a?? d????at?a e??a? ? ???e??? ?p?d??? ?a? p??sas??. ??? ?a t?t??a ?p??? ap??e? ta ??te??et?f????? d??ata p?? p??pe? ?a ?ata???f????. ? ???s? e??p??s? t?? a??pt???? t?? ??te??et ???eta? pa?ade?t? st?? e???se?? t?? ??S? , se ep?s?a ????afa t?? ????pa???? ???s??, se e???se?? ??a t?? pa???s?a p????f???a?? ?p?d??, ??p. ??a ???t??? p?? est???e? st?? p??sas? e??a? f??a??st???, de? p??a??e? se ?a????st??? a?t?ata ?a? de? ?pe?a??eta? ??p??a? ?de?d??? ?e?t?????a? ??a t? ??te??et? d????e? ap??? ?a? p??? ?t? t? ?t?? ?a p??pe? ?a ??e? p??sas? st? ??te??et. ?e s???t? t? pe??e??e?? t?? ??te??et. ?? pe??e??e?? ?a p????se ?a e??a? ?t?d?p?te.

G?a ?a pa???s??s??e ?a ????? ???t???, p??pe? ?a ?ata???s??e ?t? t? p????a de? e??a? ? st??? e?f???a? t?? ??te??et?f???a?, ?t? de? fta?e? t? ?t? ta ???? e??t?ata ????? te?e? ?a? ? ??te??et?f???a d??e? ap??? esfa???e? apa?t?se??. ?? p????a e??a? ta esfa???a e??t?ata. ?? s?a??e? t? a?t?a ??a p??sas? st? ??te??et; ???sas? se t?; ?a? p??sas? ??a p???? s??p?; G?at? ?a ?p?epe ?a d??e? t? d??a??a st??? ?p??a???? t?? ?ap?ta??s?? t?? e?e??e??? a????? ?a ??e???p???s??? ??a ?s? ?a? ?a ?a????s??? t?? ??? f?s? t??; G?at? ? a???? efa???e? pe??ss?te?e? e??e?e?? ????t?te? e t? ??te???et et ap' ?,t? e t? ?ad??f???; G?at? ?a ?p?epe t? ??e?t?????? ep???? ?a? ? ??e?t?????? ep????????a ?a s???p?????? a??? ?a? a? e??a? s?at??; ??p?? ????e ep??e?ata sta s???e?a a?, ?????t? ?s?? de??aste ?t? a?t? de ?a pa?ep?d??e t? a??s?a?? d?ad??as?a; G?at? ?e??e?ta? ded???? ?t? t? ?de?de? e??a? ??a ??te??et ??a t?? ???se?? t?? ?p???? ap?fas??e? t? ?t??; ?a? p???? ??e? a priori de??e? ?t? ?f?stata? ?a ????a??? ??t?t?ta p?? ?????eta? af?????a «?t??», ? ?p??a ?a ?a????se? ?a t?t??a p??sas?;

?p????e ?a as??s??e ???t??? st? f???s?f??? ?p?a??? t?? ??te??et?f???a? ??a t??? ?d???? ?????? p?? as???e ???t??? ?a? se p???? ?e?f??e?e??e?a d??ata: ?a ep?st?s??? st? af?????? ?t?? ( Marx 1968: 29), ?a a?s?? pep????s? ?t? t? at???? e??a? ap?????? ap? t? ?????????, ?t? e??a? ????a??? ( MacIntyre 1981, 1988, 1990, Sandel 1982, Walzer 1983, Taylor 1990 a ), ?a? ?a p?st? st?? a???t??? e?e??e??a, ?ee?????? st?? ta?t?????a ?t? ? ?????p??, ??ta? ?e??????? e?e??e???, ?fe??e? ?a? ?a e??a? e?e??e???. ???a? a?t??, p??e? ?a ?p?st?????e? ?t? ? ??te??et?f???a e??a? ??a d??a te?????????? ?tete????s??. ?p??e? a??? ?a ?p?st?????e? ?t? f?s???p??e? ?a? p?a??p??e? t?? a???? ?a? t? Net . ?p?p????, ? ??te??et?f???a de???e? ?a? ad??a??????t? ep?st?s??? st?? ?es? d????at?a. ?p?s?? pa?a??pe? ?t? ? ???e??? de? e??a? ??a fa???e?? p?? ep????eta? ap? t?? te???????a, a??? ?a ????????? p?a?at???t?ta. ?at? s???pe?a, as??t?? t?? pe?? p??a? te???????a? p???e?ta?, de? ?f?stata? ??t? a?????? e ?a ???????a t?? af????a?, af' ?? st???? ta ????????? a?a?? e??a? e? ???s?? e???p?.

 

? s????e?a st?? ??f?a?? ??s?

? t??p?? e t?? ?p??? a?t??aa??aste ta ?ee??a?? ??a t?? ?ata???s? t?? ??e?t??????? ep????????a? e??t?ata p??pe? ?a a????e? d?ast???. G?a ?a t? ep?t????e a?t?, e??a? a????? ?a ap??atast?s??e t?? p??se?t??? ?atas?e?as??e? ???e?? e t? pa?e???? ?a? ?a ??s??e t?? e???s?a' ?? ?e?t???? ?????a st?? a?t????? a? ??a t? ??te??et. ? ??te??et?f???a ap?s??d?e? t? ??te??et ap? t?? ??????????, ?st?????? ?a? ?????????? s?????e?, af????ta? t? ????? t?? e t? ea??t?ta ?t? ? ???s? t?? d???t???? ??s?? de? p???p???te? ?a ?ata???s? a?t?? t?? s???????. ?a??e???e? ??a a?a??t??? p?a?s?? d?ep?e?? ap? t?? ??s????at?a t?? d???t???? ep????????a?, ?a t?s? pe????af?? ?a? a????s?? t?? ??te??et ?sa se ??a ?st?????, ?es??? ?a? p??pa?t?? ????????? ?e??, ?a??? ? as???? ?s????s?? e??a? ?t?, a??? ?a? a? ?p???e? ?a ??te??et??? ???????a, ? ???????a a?t? e??a? ?e?fa??? ?a? d?af??et???. ??t? s??a??????a ?a??st? e ep?d???? t??p? p?e??ast??? ???e ???a s?et??? e t?? ????????? a??s?t?ta, t? d??s?a ?e?t?????a ?a? t?? p????a??s?. ????e?????, s??ep??, ?a e??a? d??at? ?p??ad?p?te eta??? pa?ade??at??, ep????eta? ?a s???de?eta? ap? ?a? a?t????? t?? on - lineep????????a????????e?t?p?s????

pa?ep?d??e t? a??s?a?? d?ad??as?a; G?at? ?e??e?ta? ded???? ?t? t? ?de?de? e??a? ??a ??te??et ??a t?? ???se?? t?? ?p???? ap?fas??e? t? ?t??; ?a? p???? ??e? a priori de??e? ?t? ?f?stata? ?a ????a??? ??t?t?ta p?? ?????eta? af?????a «?t??», ? ?p??a ?a ?a????se? ?a t?t??a p??sas?;

?p????e ?a as??s??e ???t??? st? f???s?f??? ?p?a??? t?? ??te??et?f???a? ??a t??? ?d???? ?????? p?? as???e ???t??? ?a? se p???? ?e?f??e?e??e?a d??ata: ?a ep?st?s??? st? af?????? ?t?? ( Marx 1968: 29), ?a a?s?? pep????s? ?t? t? at???? e??a? ap?????? ap? t? ?????????, ?t? e??a? ????a??? ( MacIntyre 1981, 1988, 1990, Sandel 1982, Walzer 1983, Taylor 1990 a ), ?a? ?a p?st? st?? a???t??? e?e??e??a, ?ee?????? st?? ta?t?????a ?t? ? ?????p??, ??ta? ?e??????? e?e??e???, ?fe??e? ?a? ?a e??a? e?e??e???. ???a? a?t??, p??e? ?a ?p?st?????e? ?t? ? ??te??et?f???a e??a? ??a d??a te?????????? ?tete????s??. ?p??e? a??? ?a ?p?st?????e? ?t? f?s???p??e? ?a? p?a??p??e? t?? a???? ?a? t? Net . ?p?p????, ? ??te??et?f???a de???e? ?a? ad??a??????t? ep?st?s??? st?? ?es? d????at?a. ?p?s?? pa?a??pe? ?t? ? ???e??? de? e??a? ??a fa???e?? p?? ep????eta? ap? t?? te???????a, a??? ?a ????????? p?a?at???t?ta. ?at? s???pe?a, as??t?? t?? pe?? p??a? te???????a? p???e?ta?, de? ?f?stata? ??t? a?????? e ?a ???????a t?? af????a?, af' ?? st???? ta ????????? a?a?? e??a? e? ???s?? e???p?.

 

? s????e?a st?? ??f?a?? ??s?

? t??p?? e t?? ?p??? a?t??aa??aste ta ?ee??a?? ??a t?? ?ata???s? t?? ??e?t??????? ep????????a? e??t?ata p??pe? ?a a????e? d?ast???. G?a ?a t? ep?t????e a?t?, e??a? a????? ?a ap??atast?s??e t?? p??se?t??? ?atas?e?as??e? ???e?? e t? pa?e???? ?a? ?a ??s??e t?? e???s?a' ?? ?e?t???? ?????a st?? a?t????? a? ??a t? ??te??et. ? ??te??et?f???a ap?s??d?e? t? ??te??et ap? t?? ??????????, ?st?????? ?a? ?????????? s?????e?, af????ta? t? ????? t?? e t? ea??t?ta ?t? ? ???s? t?? d???t???? ??s?? de? p???p???te? ?a ?ata???s? a?t?? t?? s???????. ?a??e???e? ??a a?a??t??? p?a?s?? d?ep?e?? ap? t?? ??s????at?a t?? d???t???? ep????????a?, ?a t?s? pe????af?? ?a? a????s?? t?? ??te??et ?sa se ??a ?st?????, ?es??? ?a? p??pa?t?? ????????? ?e??, ?a??? ? as???? ?s????s?? e??a? ?t?, a??? ?a? a? ?p???e? ?a ??te??et??? ???????a, ? ???????a a?t? e??a? ?e?fa??? ?a? d?af??et???. ??t? s??a??????a ?a??st? e ep?d???? t??p? p?e??ast??? ???e ???a s?et??? e t?? ????????? a??s?t?ta, t? d??s?a ?e?t?????a ?a? t?? p????a??s?. ????e?????, s??ep??, ?a e??a? d??at? ?p??ad?p?te eta??? pa?ade??at??, ep????eta? ?a s???de?eta? ap? ?a? a?t????? t?? on - line ep????????a? ?? ????? e?t?p?s???? ?sa st?? t?????se? ?????????-?????????? e???s?ast???? d??? ?a? ??a ?? d?a??f??e??? ap? ??????? pa?????te?.

? t?????sa e????a t?? ??te??et ???eta? se ??a??a??a a?t??es? e t??? ??te??et?f??????? ?s????s???. ?? a??s?t?te? st?? a??pt??? t?? ??te??et ?a? ? f?s? t?? e? ???? a??pt???? a?t??at?pt?????? ????? pa?? a?at??p??? t?? e???s?ast???? d??? t?? etat?st???? ?ap?ta??s??. ??t? de? e??a? ap???a? ?????, ded????? ?t? de? ??e? ???e? ?a?? p??sp??e?a ?a a?apt???e? t? ??te??et ?at? ?p????d?p?te ???? t??p?. ?? ??te??et de? a?apt?????e ?sa se ??a ????????? ?e??, a??? ap?te?e? ???? e??? e???te??? p?a?s??? ?a? ?????????? pe???????t??. O? ep????????a?? ?s?, ? ?e?t?????a t?? ?a??stata? d??at? ap? ??a? s??d?as? te?????????, ? pa?a???? t?? ?p???? ??e? ep??e?at?p????e? ed? ?a?, t??????st??, ?a de?aet?a, -? s??????? a??a t?? t??a t?? p????f?????? ?a? t?? ep?????????? e?t?????e se 1,3 t??s. d?????a ??? ( Herman ?a? McChesney 1997). ?? e?t??se?? ??a t? s?et??? t?? ??te??et se a?t? t?? ???????a p?????????. S?f??a e t?? Forrester Research , ? ??te??et??? d?ast????t?ta ap?fe?e ?s?da ??? t?? 2,2 d?s. d??a???? t? 1995? ? Active Media ?s?????eta? ?t? ta ep?s?a on - line ?s?da ??a t? 1997 a????a? se 21,4 d?s. d?????a ???, e?? s?f??a e t?? e?t??s? t?? Forrester ?????a? ta 14,4 d?s. ?? e?t??se?? ??a ta ?s?da p?? ?a ap?f??e? t? ??te??et t? 2001 p????????? ap? ta 45,5 d?s. d?????a ??? p?? e?t?? ? Forrester ( Forrester 1995) ?? t?? p???e?? t?? ?d??? t?? Gates , ? ?p???? ???e? ???? ??a 13-15 d?s. d?????a? ? Active Media a????e? a?t? t? ???e?? se 1.234 d?s. d?????a ??a t? 2002. S??ep??, t? ??te??et e??a? ??a ep??e?at?p?????? ?s?: ? a?ta??a?t??? a??a t?? on - line ep????????a? ?a??e? p??te?a??t?ta ??a?t? t?? ????? a???? t??. ??t? ? p??te?a??p???s? e?d????eta? e t?e?? ?????? ??f??, ?a?e?? ap? t?? ?p??e? ap?f??e? s?a?t??? ?s?da. ?at' a????, e t?? ep??e?at?p???s? t?? p??sas??: ? a???? t?? pa????? ?p??es??? ??te??et a???e? s?e?a 8,4 d?s. d?????a (? AOL ??? ??e? 13 e?at. s??d???t?? ?a? ? a??a t?? e?t??ta? se 2 d?s. d?????a). ?at? de?te???, e t?? ep??e?at?p???s? t?? e??a?e??? p?????s?? ?a? t?? ??a??? a?a??t?s?? (ta ?s?da t?? Yahoo ??? a??????ta? se 30.206.000 d?????a ?at? t? p??t? t????? t?? 1998). ?at? t??t??, e t? d?af??s?: ta ?s?da ap? t? d?af??s? st? Web a??????a? ?at? 28%, a??????ta? ta 169,8 e?at. d?????a t? p??t? t????? t?? 1997 ( Cowles / Simbanet 1997).

????? saf??e?a?, ? ???????a t?? ??te??et p??e? ?a d?a????e? se ?p?d?? ?a? pe??e??e?? ?p?? fa??eta? st?? ???a?a 3.1. ??a? t?t???? d?a????s?? (?????t? te???t??) ?a??st? saf?? ?t? t? ??te??et e??a? ????? e?t?p?s???? a?t? s?a??e? ?t? ? ?e?t?????a t?? e??a? e?a?t?ta? e?????????? ap? t?? ??te??et??? ?p?d??.?ad??s????t????te??et???????????a?e??a??e?a?????d?a??????a?????? t??

?????????? st?? ??? e??a? s??de?e? on - line (a????? d?p??s??? e?e???? t?? p?????????? et??), e?? ? International Data Corp e?t??se ?t? 20% t?? ae???a????? ??????????? ?ta? on - line [d???eta? s??des? on - line ] (IDC 1998). ? Jupiter e?t?? ?t? 3,7 e?at. ?????????? e??a? s??dede??a st? Net st?? ????p?, e?? 3,4 st?? ?s?at???? ???e? t?? ?????????. ?????, ??e??a a????? t?? PC Meter e?t??se ?t? t? 11% t?? s?????? t?? 98,8 e?at. ??????????? st?? ??? e??a? p??sas? st? Internet (e?? t? p?s?st? ??a ??a? ????? ????te?a ?ta? 4,4%). ?a p???sata t?? e?e???? p?? ap?pe????ta? ?a p??sd????s??? t?? a???? t?? ???st?? st?? ??? ??a????ta? ap? t? ?a??? e?t??s? t?? Morgan Stanley (8 e?at.) ?? t?? e?t?p?s?a?? e?t??s? t?? Wirtin Worldwide (pe??ss?te??? ap? 35 e?at.). ?? Internet ????e? e ??a d??t??, ap' t?? ???? t?? ?p???? ?ef?t?????? ??ad?? p?? e?a?????? ad????pa. ? t??p?? p?? e?a???e? a?t? t? d??t?? de? e??a? t??a???? ?pa???e?eta? ap? d?e??e?? ?????????-p???t???? d???. ? ??t?s? ??a backbone capacity p??? ?a ded???? ???a ??e? ?? ap?t??esa ??a pe??ss?te?? s???e?t????? d??t??, t? ?p??? ???e? t?? s??d?se?? p??? a?t? t? ???a ta??te?e? ?a? pe??ss?te?? ?s?????(;), ?e????? p?? e t? se??? t?? a????e? t? ??t?s?. ?p???e? ?a as??? ??te??et??? ?a?????a???, ??a ?e?t???? d??pe???t??? d??t?? st? ?p??? ????? s??de?e? ????te?a d??t?a. ?? ??? ??s???ta? st? ???t?? t?? p?e????t?ta? a?t?? t?? s??d?se??. ?p?? pa?at??e? ? R . Hagen , d?e????t?? ??te??et???? ??a????? st?? MCI , «?? ????ate ?a at?? s' ??a? ???t? t?? pa???s?a? ?p?d??? t?? ??te??et, ??e? ?? ??a?? ?a s???????a? p??? t?? ???, ?? a?t?? de? e??a? ? e?dede?????? t??p?? ??a ?a ?t?se?? ??a d??t??». ( Evagoras 1997:7). ?? ???p??, ????? ?????, ??a pa??t? p????f????? ?p?epe ?a etad??e? ap? t? ?p?????? ???e? st? ??a, ?a ?p?epe ?a p?e? ?s? ???s???t?? ? ???t?a?t ( MIDS 1997).

?? ?a?????a???? t?? ??te??et e??a? ?atas?e?as??e? ap? ????t???t?ta t?? ?p??a ????? st?? ?at??? t??? ?? a?? t?? ??s? PTOs ( Public Telephone Operators ) (??S? 1996: 1)? af' ?? st???? ?? ep??e???se?? e??s?????? ??a?? ap? t??? PTOs ?a? ?? ???ste? ???s??p????? t??ef?????? ??a?? ??a ?a d???????s??? dial-up s??d?se??, ?? a?? t?? ??s? PTOs e??a? p??fa??? ?? p??t?? p?????? t?? on - line ??s??. ??t? ? s??s? eta?? t?? t??ep????????a??? ?p?d??? ?a? t?? on - line ??s?? de? e??a? ????? s?as?a? de???e? ?t?, se e???? a??, ? t??ep????????a?? ????t???t?ta ?a? ?p?d?? ?a ?a????s??? t?? a???s? t?? ???s?? t?? Internet (s??ep?? ?a? t?? p??sas?) ?a? t?? a???te?t????? t?? d??t???. ?? ??e? ?a?e?? ?p' ??? ta as??? ?a?a?t???st??? t?? pa???s?a? t??ep????????a??? ?p?d???, a?a?a??pte? p???? ??a t? ?a?est?? p?? d??pe? t? ??te??et. F??' e?pe??, t? 68% t?? pa???s?a? t??ep????????a??? ?p?d??? e??p??ete? t?? a????e? t?? 16,8% t?? pa???s??? p????s?? (t? ?p??? ?s?d??ae? e t? p?s?st? t?? pa???s??? p????s?? p?? d?a??? st?? pe????? t?? OEDC ). ( OEDC 1997: 10). ??t? ?a p????se ?a e????se? ??at? t? 82% t?? Internet hosts ??s???ta? st?? pe????? t?? OEDC . ?p?p????, ? ????? t?? ??? st?? pa???s?e? t??ep????????e? e??a? d?sa?????a s?a?t????: p??te ap? t?? ept? ?????te?e? t??ep????????a??? ?d??? d??????ta? ap? t?? ??? ( Cable ?a? Distler 1995: 10). ?? ae???a????? eta??e?e? ????a????? st?? pa???s?a t??ep????????a?? a???? ( Mansell 1993).

? t??ep????????a?? ?p?d?? p?? ?p???e? se ?a ???a ??e?, s??ep??, ?a???a s?as?a ??a t?? a???s? t?? ???s?? t?? Internet , t?s? d??t? pa???e? ????t???t?ta st??? ?a???e?? ?e??e?????? ??te??et ?s? ?a? d??t? pa???e? st??? ???ste? ????a??? t??ef?????? ??a?? ??a dial - up ???s? (??S? 1997). St?? ?p?d?? s?pe???a????ta? ? t?p?? s??des?? (a?a???????, ??f?a???, e ???s? ?a??d??? ?pt???? ????), ? ????t???t?ta ?a? ? ta??t?ta, ?a??? ?a? ? d??s??? ? ?d??t???? ?a?a?t??a? t?? t??ep??????????. ????? ?????, t? ?a????????, ?a ?e??d???e?sa d????at?a, ??e? ??? ??a? t??ep????????a?? f???a ? ?p???? e??a? ?pe?????? ??a t? ????s? t?? pa????? t?? t??ep?????????? t??? ??e? ?? t??ep????????a??? ??a?? p?? s??d???? t? ?a???????? e t?? ?p????p? ??s? p??pe? ?a d??????? ap? t?? p??te???sa t?? p???? G??????s?a?a?, t? ?e?????d?. ???? pe?????s???? ????t???t?ta?, e??a? ad??at?? ?a e??s???e? a??et? e???? ????? st??? ?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et. ? t??ep????????a??? f???a? a??e?ta? ep?s?? ?a d?se? ?de?a ??a d???????a ????t?? t??ep?????????? st?? Global System Mobile Communication , ?a eta??e?a ? ?p??a p??spa?e? ?a ef?d??se? t? ?a???????? e as??ate? s??d?se?? ??te??et. ?ts?, t? ?a???????? pa?a??e? e?t?? ??e???????? ??a ?????? p???t????? ?a? e????? ?????.

?p?p????, t? e???? ????? t?? s??des?? p??????e? s?a?t??? ap? t? ?a pe????? t?? p?a??t? st?? ????, ?a? a?? t?? p??????e? ?a? ? ta??t?ta et?d?s??. ?a pe??ss?te?a t?ata t?? ae???a????? ?a?????a???? ????? e???? ????? 622 Mbits ? ?a? ?????te??, ?e????? p?? t?p??ete? t?? ??? st? ???t?? t?? a???te?t?????? ?p?d???. ? ??d?a ??e? 10 Mbits ????t???t?ta? ??te??et amd ?a? ? ??s?a 40, ?e????? p?? e? ??e? e???e? t??? ?a????? ?????? d?e?sd?s?? t?? ??te??et se a?t?? t?? ???e? ( Evagoras 1997). St?? ????p? ?p?????? ???e? (s??d?se?? e e???? ????? 2- Mbit ;), e s???pe?a t?t??e? (s??d?se??;) ?a e??a? ?pe?????? a????? ??a ?a ?s?????? ap? ep??e???se??, ?e????? p?? ?s?? e???e? ??at? ? ????p? ?ste?e? se ??f?a??? ep??e???se?? ?a? ??at? ?? e???pa???? ???e? a???????ta? ?a a?tepe??????? st? ??t?s? (??a e?a??te?? e???? ?????;) ( ??S? 1996). ?a p????ata sta?e??t?ta? t?? d??t??? p?? p???a?e? ? s?f???s? (? ad??a?a t?? p??sf???? ?a ?a???e? t? ??t?s?;) ?a? t? pe?????s??? e???? ????? e??a? te??st?a.

?? e?d???? s??d?se?? ?????? ta??t?ta? p?? d????ta? e???e? ???? p????f????? (514 Kbs ?a? ?????te?e?) de? e??a? p??s?t?? st? ?s? ???st?. ? s?????ste?? s??des? e t? Internet e??a? 28,8 Kbs , p??s?t? st? 39,0% t?? ???st??, e?? a????????? ?? s??d?se?? e ta??t?ta 14,4 ? bs ? ta??t?ta p?? ?at? ?a???a ???s??p??e? t? 25,5% t?? ???st?? ( Kantor ?a? Neubarth 1996: 48). ?? s??????e? ?a?e?? a?t?? t?? ta??t?te? s??des?? e, a? p??e, ta 44,736 Mbps p?? ap??a????? ?s?? ???ste? t?? IBM st?????? p????f???e? ?s? t?? d??t??? t?? IBM (t?a t?? ?a?????a???? t?? ???), ?ata?aa??e? ?a?e?? ?t? t? e???? ????? st?? ??e??????? de? e??a? ape?????st?? e??a? ??a ?d??t??? a?a??', t? ?p??? de? ?ata??eta? e??s?? se ?????. Se ??a p??? as??? ep?ped?, ?? d?a????se?? t?? e????? ????? s?a????? ?t? de? ????? ???? ?? ???ste? t? ?d?? s?st?a d?a???? st? d???es? t??? ??at? ????? e???? ????? de? ?p???e? d?a??? pe??e??????. ?ts?, a??? ?a? a? ??p???? pa???e? on - line pe??e??e??, e??a? ????st? ????? t? e???? ????? p?? apa?te?ta? ??a ?a t? etad?se?. ?? ??p???? ??e?e ?a ste??e? ??a pa??t? p????f????? 680 MB ap? t?? ?t???ta st? ?a? ????a?, ?a ??e?a??ta? 53 ??e? pe??ss?te?? ap' ?s? ??a pa??t? p?? ?a ?ste??e ? ?. Hagen p?? a?af??ae st? s. 93 (a??? ?a? a? ?ta? s??d???t?? t?? MCI ). ??t? s?a??e? ?t? ? ?. Hagen d?a??te? pe??ss?te?? d??a? st?? on - line ep????????a, ef' ?s?? p??e? ?a etad?se? ?a? ?a ??e? pe??e??e?? ap?te?esat???te?a ?a? ta??te?a. ? e???t?s? ap? t? e???? ????? s?a??e? ?t? t? Internet e? ???s?? de? e??a? ??a pe??????? af????a?. ?a??? ? ???s? a????eta?, t? d?a??s?? e???? ????? ???eta? t? s?a?t???te?? ?d??t??? a?a?? on - line . ?at' ??s?a?, ? ????s? t?? ?????f???a? ???eta? ?a???a?.

?f????ta? ?at? ???? t? p????a t?? e????? ?????, t? ??st?? p??sas?? st? Internet p??????e? s?a?t??? se s????t?s? e t?? ????????? a??pt??? ?a? t?? ?e???af??? ??s?. S?f??a e t?? ??S?, t? ?a???? ?????f???a? t?? Internet , p?? a?t?p??s?pe?e? t?? t?? ?a? ???a?a? s??d???? s?? t?? pstn ????s? ( peak rate ) ??a 20 ??e? on - line ???a???, ap??a??pte? d?aat???? a?????t?te? st?? t??????s? t?? p??sas??? ??a? ?e???a??? ? ?p???? s??d?eta? on - line se ??a a???? ?a p??pe? ?a p????se? t?sse??? f???? pe??ss?te?a ap? e?e??a p?? ?a p????se? ??a? ?a?ad??, e?? ? ??eta??? ???st?? ?a p??pe? ?a p????se? ??t? ????te?? ap? t?? ?e???a??, a??? t??????st?? t?e?? f???? pe??ss?te?a ap? e?e??a p?? ?a p?????e ??a? ?e???a??? (??S? 1997).

 

?p??e???at??? ???s? - ep????? ???s?

??a ep?p???? pa??et??? t?? a??s?t?ta? st?? t??p? e t?? ?p??? a?apt?sseta? t? Internet af??? t?? a???s? t?? p??sas?? ?a? ???s?? t?? ap? ep??e???se?? se s?????s? e t?? p??sas? ?a? t? ???s? t?? ap? ?ata?a??t??. ?a a????t??? ded???a de?????? ?t? ? p??t? ?pe?a??e? ?at? p??? t? de?te??. ??t? s?a??e? ?t? ? a???s? t?? ep??e???at???? ???s?? de? s??ep?f??e? a?t?ata a???s? t?? ?ata?a??t???? ???s??. ? ActivMedia e?t?? t? p?s?st? a???s?? t?? s??d?se?? ep??e???se?? e t? Internet se 15% a?? ??a ?a? t? ???? a???s?? t?? p??sas?? ?ata?a??t?? se 50% ???e ?????. ?????, s?f??a e t?? ??S?, s?ed?? ta d?? t??ta t?? ?????f???a? t?? Internet s???sta?ta? ap? etaf???? ded????? e?t?? eta??e??? (??S? 1996).

??a s?????s? t?? ep???ate??? ep?ea???e? a?t? ta s?pe??sata. ?? S??a 3.2 de???e? t??? Internet hosts ?p?? ????? ?ata??afe? s?f??a e t? domain name p?? ???s??p?????. ??? ?e????? t?? 1991, ?p???a? ????te??? ap? 500.000 ep?????? host computers , e?? t? p???d?sa e??a? ?? host computers t?? e?pa?de?t???? ?d???t??. ??? ?e????? t?? 1996, ?? ep?????? hosts p??p??e???ta? ?at? p???, ????ta? ft?se? s?f??a e e?t??se?? ta 4 e?at. ? a????? t?? e?pa?de?t???? hosts e??e ep?s?? a????e? ??? ??? st?? ?d?? a??- se 2,5 e?at. ???? ?a? a? de ?e????sae ap?fas?st??? a?t?? t? d?af??? st? ???? a??pt????, ?a at?? st?? a???? t?? hosts p?? e??p??et??? ?? ??e???t????? ???a??s??? ?a ?p?epe ?a a? pe?se?. ?p?p????, t? 1996 ?p???a? 1,3 e?at. ep??e???se?? on - line , a????? p?? ?s?? t? 2001 ??e? a????e? se 8,0 e?at. ?? 82% t?? 500 eta??e??? p?? pe???a????ta? st?? e?d??? ??d?s? t?? pe???d???? Fortune ??a t? 1996 ?ta? s??dede??e? st? Internet , e?? ?? ?p????pe? d???eta? dial - up s??d?se?? ?a? t? 100% t?? e????? eta??e??? d???eta? s??des? e t? Internet ( Forrester 1996). ?p?p????, t? 1996, ? Forrester ?p?????se ?t? ? a????? ?st?t?p?? t?? e????? eta??e??? ?e??e se ?a d?et?a ?a tet?ap?as?aste? ap? ??a ?s? ??? t?? t??e?? t?? 2,5 ( Forrester 1996 a ). ?p?p???? st???e?a p???????ta? ap? t? WWW . S?f??a e ??e??a t?? ActivMedia , ? a????? ep?????? ?st?se??d?? a??????e ap? 600 t? Sept???? t?? 1994 se 95.000 t?? ?????? t?? 1996. ? a????? ep?????? ?st?se??d?? p?? e??a? ?ata?????e? st? Yahoo (st? directory ??a t?? Web business ') a????eta? ?at? 19% ???e ??a.

 

??e?t?????? ep???? ?a? ??e?t?????? ep????????a

? a???s? t?? ep??e???at???? ???s?? s?p??e?eta? e t?? ???d? t?? ??e?t??????? ep?????, ? e?sa???? t?? ?p???? ??s?ast??? a????e? t? ?e?t?????a t?? Internet , etat??p??t?? t? ap? ??a ep??e?at?p?????? ?s? ep????????a? se ??a s??pe????et, ?a a??a?? ? ?p??a ??e? d?se? af??? ????? ??a pa??????s??? pa?? ??a p????at?s?. ?? 1997, ?p???a? 4.000 ??e????atast?ata, ta ?p??a s?????t???a? e??ss??e? ?a? e????e? ep??????? ?????? ( Flisi 1997). ??e??a t?? IDC se 175 e???e? eta??e?e? ?de??e ?t? t? 46%

s?ed?a?a? ?a e??atast?s??? te???????a ??e?t??????? ep????? st?? ?st?se??de? t??? ( NUA 1997), e?? t? 100% t?? eta??e??? p?? e??t????a? ap? t?? Forrester d????ta? pa?a??e??e? ?s? t?? Net , t? 41% ???s??p????sa? t? Internet ??a ?a ep?ea??s??? t?? p????? ?a? t? 38% ??a ?a ep?ea??s??? t?? pa??d?s?. ?? 67% t?? eta??e??? p?? e??t????a? ap? t? Forrester e??a? ap?fas?se? ?a ep?d????? st? ??e?t?????? ep???? ??a ?a e?asfa??s??? t? p???d?sa. ? ????? t?? ep?????? s??a??a???(;) eta?? ep??e???se?? a?ae??ta? ?a a????e? ta 8 d?s. d?????a t? 1997, p?s? p?? a?t?p??s?pe?e? ???d? t?? t??e?? t?? 100% se s?????s? e t? a?t?st???? t?? 1996? ? a????? a?t?? a?a??eta? ?a a????e? se 327 d?s. d?????a ?at? t? 2002 ( Forrester 1997). ? Anderson Consulting p????pe? ?t? ? a???? e?d?? pa?a????? on - line ?a a????e? se 60 d?s. d?????a ??? ?at? t?? ep?e?? de?aet?a. ? ?e???? ????? e?t??se ?t? ? s???????? ????? ep?????? s??a??a??? st? Internet e?d??eta? ?a a????e? ta 10 d?s. d?????a st?? ?ap? t?? a???a ( White House 1997). ? ActivMedia e?t?? ?t? ta ?s?da ap? t? ??e?t?????? ep???? ?a a??????? ta 1,2 t??s. d?????a t? 2001 ( ActivMedia 1998). S?f??a e ??e??a p?? ????e t? 1997, 5,6 e?at. ?????p??, d??ad? t? 15,5% t?? on - line ???st??, ????? ???s??p???se? t? WWW ??a ?a a????s??? ??a p????? ? ?a ?p??es?a? ?????, t? 73% ?s?? se?f????? st? WWW a?a??t??? st? Web p????f???e? ??a s???e?????a p?????ta p??? p????? se a???? ( Nielsen Media 1997).

G?a ?a e??a? ef??t? ? d?e?a???? t?? ??e?t??????? ep?????, p??pe? ?a d?asfa?????ta? ???s???? pa?????te?, ?e????? t? ?p??? apa?te? s?a?t???? a??a???. ?? pa?????te? a?t?? e??a? ? asf??e?a, ? ta??t?ta ?a? ? p??stas?a t?? ?d??t???? ded????? ? ?p?? ?a?a?t???st??? a?af??eta? se ????? t?? Wired , «a? de? d?asfa??ste? t? ap????t?, de? ???eta? ep????» ( Daves 1998: 135). ? asf??e?a e??a? t? apa?a?t?t? p??t? ?a ??a t? ??e?t?????? ep???? ?a? ? ???pt????f?s? e??a? ?a ???a??s??? ??f? asf??e?a?. ???eta? ep?s?? t? e??t?a t?? ????st???? p?a?s??? p?? ?a ????et??e? ??a t?? ??e?t?????? ep????????a ?a? t? ??e?t?????? ep????, ef' ?s?? ?at? pa??d?s? a???a? se d?af??et??? ????st??? pa?ade??ata ( Hartman 1998). ?at? s???pe?a, a??? ?a? a? ??p???? d?af??e? e t?? p???t???? e?st?se?? p?? st??f??ta? e?a?t??? t?? e?sa????? t?? ??e?t??????? ep?????, e??a? saf?? ?t? t? ??e?t?????? ep???? ?a? ? ??e?t?????? ep????????a de? p????? e????a ?a s???p??????. ?? e?et?se? ?a?e?? p??se?t??? t? S??a 2.1 ?a? a?a????ste? t?? ep?pt?se?? p?? ?a e??e t? ??e?t?????? ep???? st?? ???????a t?? Internet , ?ata?aa??e? ?t? ?a ep?t?epe t?? e?s?d? st?? ?p?d?? t?? Net eta??e??? ?? ?p??e? ??de?a s??s? ????? e t?? ep????????a ?a?, ?p?? ????e de?, ? ?p?d?? ?a?????e? t? pe??e??e??.

 

?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et: d???ta? t?? on - line epe???a

?? «?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et» [ Internet Service Providers ISPs ] e??a? ?? de?te??? p?????? t?? on - line ??s??. ?at' a????, ? t?? p?? ?a???????? ??a t?? ?p??es?e? p?? p??sf????? ?????e? t?? on - line d?ast????t?ta ?????????. ?ts?, ? ?a????s?? d?af??et???? t??? ??a t?? p??sas? st? ??te??et ?a? t? f????e??a ?st?se??d?? d???????se t?? d?a????s? t?? on - line pa?a????? ap? t?? on - line ?ata?a??t?. ?? ?? ?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et de? ?????a? ep?p???? ???ata ??a ?a ????? t?? p????f???e? on - line , ??a? t?t???? d?a????s?? de ?a e??e ep???at?se? t?s? e????a. ? ?????a e??? on - line ?????? ?a? on - line a???????se?? ?ta? t? ???a?? epa???????. ???????, ???? ?? ?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et d?a??t??? ??d??e? s?pe??f????, s????a ?a????? t??? ?p????? ?? ???ste? p??pe? apa?e????t?? ?a t????? ?a? ?? ?p???? e?d??eta? ?a ap???? ep?????? ??a t? pe??e??e??. ?? f??t????sa t?? pe??e?????? ????ete?ta? p???? ?a? ap? t??? a?ad?a????? ?a???e??.

??t?? ap? ??a? t?t??? ?es? ??e???, ?? ?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et as???? ??e??? ?a? ?s? t?? ?p?s?es?? t??? ?a d??s??? t?? on - line epe???a, ?a p??sd?s??? ??f? st?? ?st?, ?a p???es? p?? e?f???eta? ?a?a?? st?? ?ap???e? ???et???? ?a? d?af??s?? t?? ?p??es??? p?? pa??????. St?? ?ap???e? a?t??, pa?' ?t? t? ??te??et ??e? ????d???e? ?? ??a? a?a??? ??????ta? p??? e?e?e???s?, ???e eta??e?a ?p?s?eta? ?a eta??f?se? t? ???? se pa?d??? ?a?? t?? ???s??. ?? ???????, e?e??? p?? p??e?ta? e??a? ? d??s?. ?? ?a???e?? ?p?s???ta? ?a ?atast?s??? t? ??te??et ?a? asfa?? ?a? d????? epe???a? ?p?? ?a?a?t???st??? a?af??eta? st? s????a t?? LineOne , «?p???e? t??p?? ?' a????e?? d??? ?sa st? ??????a;», ?, ?p?? d?aea???e? ? AOL , «???a?????e t? Web ??a es??». ??t? p?? ep?s?? ?p?s???ta? e??a? ?t? ?a t?t??a d??s? ?a e??a? e?at???e???? ?a? ?a ?a??e? ?p??? t?? ?d?a?te?e? a????e? ???e ???st?. ? ?ap???a t?? Microsoft s?p?????e? p??? ep?t?????a a?t? t? d?tt? ?p?s?es?: «??? ???ete ?a ?e?e?te s?e?a;» ? ???? t?? Internet ?? e??? ?a?t???? t?p??? e??a? t? ap?te?esat???te?? e??a?e?? ???et????, ??at? ep?t??pe? st?? e???e? eta??e?e? ?a pa???s?????ta? ?? ep?te???se? ?a d?tt? ?a? ap???t?? apa?a?t?t? ?e?t?????a st?? on - line ??s?: t? d??s? ?a? t?? e?at???e?s?. ???a? ? ap?te?esat???te?? te????? ???et???? epe?d? pa???s???e? t?? on - line eta??e?a ?? ep?te???sa ?a ??t??? ?e?t?????a, ?? ??a? ?es? ? ?p???? ???? t? ?t?? ?a e??a? a?t???? on - line . ? ?pe?p????? a?t?? t?? d?tt?? ?e?t?????a? apa???sse? t?? eta??e?e? ap? t?? a????? ?a ????d?t?s??? ??a t?? s?a??e? p?? s???pt??? ?a? t?? ???ete? e??p???se?? st?? ?p??e? p??a?????, ef' ?s?? pa???s?????ta? ?? e?e??et???? ??a t?? pe??t?, ?a??? ? ??e???? d?a???? e???te??? pt???? t?? ??e???????? ?a??stata? e??s??t???? pa????? t?? ap?d?t???t?ta? t?? eta??e?a?.

?? d??t?a??? p??e? e??a? ??a p??? ?a?a?t???st??? pa??de??a t?? p?? a?t? t? ???? e?ap???eta? ap? t??? ?a???e?? ?p??es??? ??te??et st??? pa???e?? pe??e??????. ?? d??t?a??? p??e? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?a pa?????? ??? pe??e??e?? a??? ?a? ?a ???a?????? t? ?d? ?p????? pe??e??e??, pa?ap?p??ta? t?? ???st? st??? p??sf???te???? p?????. ???a?, s??ep??, ? ????a e?s?d?? p??? t?? ??te??et??? epe???a, ?d??? ??a t??? ?e???p??? ???ste?, af?? t? switching p??e? ?a ap?e? dapa????. ?s?? t?ss??ta? ?p?? e??? ep??e?at?p??????? ??te??et, pa???s?????? t? ?e?t?????a p?? ep?te???? ?? d??t?a??? p??e? ?? ap??? p?a?t???(ep??e???s?a??; ?e?t???????;). ?at? ta ?e??e?a t?? M . Pareth , a?a??t? t?? Goldman Sachs , «?? d??t?a??? p??e? e??a? ?p??es?e? p?? s??e?????? epa?efa????e?e? p?s?t?te? ?????f???a? (?p? ?????f???a p????f?????) ?a? pa?????? d?af??et??? s????a ?e?t???????t?ta? se a?t?? t?? (?p? ?????f???a p????f???e?)» ( Goldman Sachs 1998:3). ????t?p????ta? t?? ?de?????a t?? ???et???? p?? p?????????? pa???s??sae, ?p?st????eta? ?t? ?? d??t?a??? p??e?, pa?????ta? st??? ???ste? t?? apa?a?t?t? ??a t? ?e?t?????a t?? ??te??et d?aes????s?, p??sf????? ?a ??t??? ??a t? ???st? ?p??es?a. ??t??t???, st?? p?a?at???t?ta, a?t? p?? ?????? e??a? ?a ep?te???? ?a ?e?t?????a ??t??? ??a t?? pe?a?t??? ep??e?at?p???s? t?? ??te??et, e?at???e???ta? t? pe??e??e?? ?a? ?at??????p????ta? t?? ?st?se??de? p???a t? ?p??? ap?a??e? p??? ?fe??? ??? t?? ???st? a??? t?? eta??e?a?. ?e t?? t??p? a?t? ?ate??????? t?? p??s??? e?e? p?? ??????, ??at? a?t? a????? ? d???????s? t?? p??s???? ?a? ? s?????s? t?? (?p? ?????f???a p????f?????) e??a? ? ap?st??? t???. ?? d??t?a??? p??e? ap?te???? t? s?e?? e?????s?? ??a p?????? ?ata?a??t?? ?a? s??a??????a d???? es?e??a a?t? p?? ? ???st?? p??e? ?a ???e? on - line .

 

????s??? ?a? e??a?e?a p?????s??

? s?as?a t?? ????s???? st? d??s? ?a? d?a??f?s? t?? p????f???a? e??a? ad??at?? ?a ?a??f?e? d?e??d??? ?sa sta ???a a?t?? t?? ?efa?a???. ???a? a??et? ?a p??e ?t? t? ????s??? e??a? f???a? a??a? ?a? ?? t?t??? p??e? ?a s??e?sf??e? se d??? ?? ?p??e? p???????? ???s??a pe??e??e?a pe??ss?te?? ap? ???a. ?? ??a??? a?a??t?s?? ep?s?? a??????? d?a???? t? d??a? t??? st?? ??e???????. ??aes??a??? t?? on - line epe???a pa?ap?p??ta? st? e??st?te p??sf??? pe??e??e??. ? Yahoo ??? d?aes??ae? pe??p?? 30 e?at. epe???e? ???e ??a. ??a t?t??a es????s? de? p??pe? ?a ?e????e? as?a?t?, ??at? ??e? ?? s???pe?a ?t? de? ap??a?e? ??? t? pe??e??e?? t?? ?d?a? ???es??. ?????a pe??ss?te?? s??????eta? p???? ?a p???????e t?? ??a??? a?a??t?s?? ??a ?a p?????s??? ???s??? ?????, e?? ?? ??a??? a?a??t?s?? ep?s?? ??? ?a? p?? s???? a? p??te????? ?a p??spe??s??e ??a s???e?????? pe??e??e??.

 

?d?s?a?s?

? a??t??? a????s? d?a?????e? ?a?a?? t?? s?et???? e t? ??te??et ????a??e?, s???a??pt??ta? t?? p?a?at???t?ta, ?t? ?a pe??e?t???te?? e????a t?? on - line e???s?a? p??e? ?a ?e?e? a????? st? s???fa?s? ?p?d??? ?a? pe??e??????. ? t??p?? e t?? ?p??? s???fa????ta?, a????ep??a??pt??ta? ?a? a?a??????ta? ?? s?et???? e t? ??te??et ????a??e? ?a? ?? a??s?t?te? p?? pe??????ae p?? p??? s???st? t? s?a?t???te?? ??f?a t?? on - line e???s?a?: t?? ?d?s?a?s?. ? a?t????? ?t? ? ?ata????s? ? ? ???s? st? Internet s?a????? ?ta? ? ???st?? ??pe?/???s??p??e? ?a ?st?se??da e??a? esfa????, d??t? pa?a??pe? ?t? a?t? p?? d?e? ?a? d?a??f??e? t?? on - line epe???a (t?? ?ata????s?) e??a? t? s????? ?a? ? a?????d?as? t?? d?af???? e??? p?? p??sd???????? ?a? d?a??f????? t?? on - line ??s?. ?a? a????? st?? ??a??t?ta ?a ?a???????e ?a t?t??a d?asta???s? ?a? a?????d?as? ???e?ta? ? on - line e???s?a. ?? ???????, ? p??s??? t?? ???st?? d?e?ta? ?s? t?? d?ap????? t?? p??te ????a???? p?? s?????t??? t?? ??te??et??? epe???a t?? t??ep??????????, t?? ?a?????? ?p??es??? ??te??et, t?? ?atas?e?ast?? ????s????, t?? ??a??? a?a??t?s?? ?a? t?? on - line a?aetad?t??? ? p??s??? t?? ???st?? d?e?ta? ?a??? ?a????ta? ?a a???????s??? t?? ?d?s?a?s? ?a? ?a ???s??p???s??? t? ??te??et ?at? ???s????? t??p???.

 

S?p??asa

??t? ? ????? ??fe?? e????a t?? ??te??et de? ap?s??pe? ?a ?d???se? se ?a st?s? a???st???? s?ept???s??, a??? ?a pa??s?e? t? ?s? ??a ?a ?????? epa?e?????????s?[?a epa?af??e? st?? e?e???t??? at???ta e??t?ata p?? af????? t?? ????????? ?s?t?ta, t? d??s?? ?a?? ?a? t?? p???t?s??? ????a???a. ?? ??te??et ?a p????se ?a e??a? ??t? pe??ss?te?? ap? ?a p?atf??a d?a????. Ta p????se ep?s?? ?a e??a? ??t? pe??ss?te?? ap? ??a ??f?a?? ???a ??a at???? ???s? ?a? ??a??p???s?. G?a ?a s?e? ??? a?t?, t? s?e???? afe??? pa??de??a t?? ?e?d?-f??e?e??e??? at????s?? p??pe? ?a d?se? t? ??s? t?? se ??a ??aa t?? a?t?? p?? ?a ?fe??e ?a e??a? t? ??te??et. ?? pe??????? ?sa st? ?p??? a?apt?sseta? t? ??te??et s???st? ??a? epe????ta ???? ??a t?? a?a??p???s? t?? ep??e????t?? p?? a??????? ??a? d??s?? ???? ??a ta ???. ?pa?af??e? st? ???t?? t?? s???t?s?? e??ata?e?e???e? ap?????e? pe?? d??s?a? pa??as?? ?a? ???at?d?t?s?? t?? ep????????a?. ??e??e? e? ???? e??t?ata a?af????? e t? d??s?? s?f???? st? ep??e?t?? t?? s???t?s??. ??a d??s?? ??te??et e??a? apa?a?t?t? ??a a?ast???e? t?? s?e????? t?se?? ep??e?at?p???s??. ???? a? de? f?????e ?a p??f????e t? ???? d??s??', p????e ?a a???s??e ?a s???t?e ??a t?? e?e??es? e??? t??p?? e??d?? ap? t? ?e?f??e?e??e?? at???ta. ?? ??te??et e??a? d??at?? ?a pa??s?e? t? ?s? ??a ?a? a?a???s? t?? pa??d?s?? t?? ?es?? ?????? ?fe?e?a?. St???? a?t?? t?? ?efa?a??? de? e??a? ?a s??a??af?se? t?? ?de?d? ??f? e??? t?t???? d??s??? ??te??et, a??? ?a a????e? t? s???t?s?, etat?p????ta? ta e??t?ata ap? t?? a???a?? ?tete????s?.